Noor student competition; commemorating Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari

On January, 2018, Mustafa(pbuh) Science and Technology Foundation (MSTF) holds the 3rd round of Noor Student Competition, among students, educational and research centers”, with the goal of “producing 60-second scientific videos” Execution of the competition and its technical and scientific supporting are responsibility of “Fanamouz” Corporation.

The Subjects of the competition:


1- Producing dynamic mechanisms
2- Conducting experiments in various fields of mechanics
Scientific guide: As previous rounds, over 100 videos will be uploaded in scientific area of the competitions
The subjects of scientific videos are: simple machines and dynamic mechanisms, friction, stagnation, center of mass, statics, inertia, rotational movement, centripetal forces, projectile motion, Newton’s laws, gravity, spring, momentum, mechanical energy and conversions, pendulums, pressure and flotation, pressure in solids, liquids and gases, Bernoulli’s law, fluids, fluctuation, resonance, mechanical waves etc.

Awards:


• 100 gold coins for 100 selected works
• Granting scientific and experimental equipment to selected schools and research centers

Submission deadline: 5 July, 2018
For participation and registration in the competition, click on “registration” icon in home page
Judging criteria and competition rules are accessible in main menu

al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius

“al-Shaykh Ra'is Badi' al-Zaman Abu-'l-'Izz Ibn Isma'il Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari “(1136-1206) was the most outstanding Arabic Muslim mechanical engineer of his time. He lived in Diyar-Bakir (in Turkey) during the 6th century H (late 12th century-early 13th century CE). He brought Islamic technology to a culminant point.
He was called al-Jazari after the place of his birth, al-Jazira,. In 1206, he completed an outstanding book on engineering entitled al-Jami' bayn al-'ilm wa-'l-'amal al-nafi' fi sinat'at al-hiyal in Arabic. The most significant treatise of the Islamic tradition of mechanical engineering and a ground breaking work in the history of technology.
It was a compendium of theoretical and practical mechanics. George Sarton writes: "This treatise is the most elaborate of its kind and may be considered the climax of this line of Muslim achievement" (Introduction to the History of Science, 1927, vol. 2, p. 510).


al-Jazari's book is distinctive in its practical aspect because the author was a competent engineer and skilled craftsman. The book describes various devices in minute detail, providing hence an invaluable contribution in the history of engineering.
There are many technical terms in Persian language that show the impact of Iranians on the technology of the Islamic world. This book is also noticeable, according to the beautiful paintings and the musical instruments that he used them in clocks and pitchers.
Jazari has drawn a picture for every devices, so the book contains 50 main pictures from 1 to 50 Abjad numbers, in addition to some other detailed pictures. Although the 3D pictures of the book are primitive, but they are understandable.

al-Jazari described fifty mechanical devices in six different categories, including water clocks, hand washing device (wudhu' machine) and machines for raising water, etc. Following the "World of Islam Festival" held in the United Kingdom in 1976, a tribute was paid to al-Jazari when the London Science Museum showed a successfully reconstructed working model of his famous "Water Clock."

The original drawing of the double action or reciprocating pump from al-Jazari's manuscript. Topkapi Palace Museum Library, Ahmet III, MS 3472.


Donald R. Hill translated into English al-Jazari's book in 1974, seven centuries and 68 years after it was completed by its author. al-Jazari's encyclopedic treatise includes six main categories of the following machines and devices.
1) ten water and candle clocks;
2) ten vessels and figures suited for drinking sessions;
3) ten pitchers and basins for phlebotomy and washing before prayers;
4) ten fountains that change their shape alternately, and machines for the perpetual flute;
5) five water raising machines;
6) five miscellaneous devices.
Several of the machines, mechanisms and techniques first appear in this treatise, later entering the vocabulary of European mechanical engineering. Among these innovations, we mention the double acting pumps with suction pipes, the use of a crank shaft in a machine, accurate calibration of orifices, lamination of timber to reduce warping, static balancing of wheels, use of paper models to establish a design, casting of metals in closed mould boxes with green sand, etc. al-Jazari also describes methods of construction and assembly in scrupulous detail of the fifty machines to enable future craftsmen to reconstruct them.

View of The Elephant Clock: Leaf from a manuscript of al-Jazari's Kitab fi macrifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya dated 715 H/1315 CE.


The picture shows a virtual model of one of al-Jazari's reciprocating pumps. The details of this unique pump were obtained from his manuscript and Hill's diagrams. We see two suction pumps in synchronous motion driven by a paddle wheel, which is driven by a water stream.
Due to his fundamental mechanical inventions, al-Jazari has been described as the "father of modern day engineering", and due to his invention of an early programmable humanoid robot, he has been hailed as the "father of robotics".

Register!